ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Depending on your stance, it's caused either by: a deficit in executive functioning in the brain (control of inhibition and voluntary action thanks to dopamine and norepinephrine); an inability to defer gratification (called delay aversion), genes, or parenting styles.
- To be diagnosed with ADHD, both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity must be present in at least two different settings, e.g. at home and at school, for at least 6 months.
- Clinicians are not required to observe children; rather, they rely on third-party accounts from teachers and parents, which surely plays a role in its misdiagnosis.
In my opinion, what Social Construct Theory does is explain the views of the general public about the status of ADHD. What it doesn’t do is explain the disorder itself.
- Is ADHD overdiagnosed? In some places, yes.
- Why? It often occurs with other disorders that share symptoms, clinicians don’t tend to stick to strict rules, and they rely on prototypical criteria (like being male)
- Is it overmedicated? Research suggests not, but ADHD medications may be used for related disorders, distorting the picture.
- Some say that it isn’t a real disorder – explain. It’s seen as an excuse for slipping societal moral standards and bad parenting, which the pharmaceutical industry is cashing in on.
- But some say it is a real disorder – explain. Neurological studies have found distinctive patterns of brain function in people with the disorder, genes play a strong role, drugs have a significant effect in treating it, and it can predict later psychosocial maladjustment.