1) The developmental antecedents of illicit drug use: Evidence from a 25-year longitudinal study
David M. FergussonCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Joseph M. Bodena and L. John Horwooda
aDepartment of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
Received 19 December 2007;
revised 21 February 2008;
accepted 6 March 2008.
Available online 21 April 2008.
The present study examined the developmental antecedents of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence.
A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures included assessments of adolescent and young adult illicit drug use and abuse/dependence; cannabis use to age 25; measures of parental adjustment; measures of exposure to childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and interparental violence; novelty-seeking; childhood and early adolescent adjustment and substance use; and affiliation with substance-using peers.
Illicit drug use and abuse/dependence from ages 16 to 25 were significantly associated (all p values < .05) with a range of parental adjustment measures; exposure to abuse in childhood; individual factors; and measures of childhood and early adolescent adjustment including ADHD diagnosis /medication. Analyses using repeated measures logistic regression models suggested that parental illicit drug use, gender, novelty-seeking, and childhood conduct disorder including ADHD + medication predicted later illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. Further analyses revealed that these pathways to illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were mediated via cannabis use, affiliation with substance-using peers, and alcohol use during ages 16–25.
The current study suggested that the illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were associated with a range of early life circumstances and processes that put individuals at greater risk of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. However, the use of cannabis in late adolescence and early adulthood emerged as the strongest risk factor for later involvement in other illicit drugs.
Keywords: Illicit drug use; Cannabis use; Peer substance use; Family background; Longitudinal study
1.1. Parental adjustment factors
1.2. Exposure to abuse in childhood
1.3. Individual factors
1.4. Childhood and early adolescent conduct and attention problems
1.5. Adolescent substance use and social processes
1.6. Background to the present study
2.1. Illicit (non-cannabis) drug use and illicit drug abuse/dependence
2.2. Predictors of illicit drug use and illicit drug abuse/dependence
2.2.1. Measures of parental adjustment and substance use
188.8.131.52. Parental illicit drug use
184.108.40.206. Parental criminality
220.127.116.11. Parental alcohol problems
2.2.2. Measures of exposure to abuse in childhood
18.104.22.168. Childhood sexual abuse
22.214.171.124. Parental use of physical punishment (childhood physical abuse)
126.96.36.199. Interparental violence (0–16 years)
2.2.3. Individual factors
2.2.4. Childhood and adolescent adjustment
188.8.131.52. Child conduct and attention problems (ages 7–13) which is likely to have included medication.
2.2.5. Time-dynamic measures of substance use and peer influence (ages 16–25)
184.108.40.206. Annual frequency of cannabis use (ages 16–25)
220.127.116.11. Affiliation with substance-using peers (ages 16–25)
18.104.22.168. Frequency of cigarette smoking (ages16–25)
22.214.171.124. Frequency of alcohol use (ages 16–25)
2.3. Missing data
3.1. Rates of illicit drug use and illicit drug abuse/dependence
3.2. Factors associated with illicit drug use and illicit drug abuse/dependence, ages 16–25
3.3. Multivariate analyses of risk factors for illicit drug use and illicit drug abuse/dependence, ages 16–25
3.4. Effect size estimates and evaluation of interaction effects
|CYCLE OF STIMULATION BY DRUGS AND THEN PAIN LEADS TO DEPENDENCE.|
Conflicts of interest
Corresponding Author Contact InformationCorresponding author at: Christchurch Health and Development Study, University of Otago, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, PO Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand.
2) Abuse of prescription drugs and the risk of later addictions.
|Trapped in a cycle of despair and drug dependance.How long for is the question?|
Wilson M. ComptonCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author and Nora D. Volkow
National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Received 16 August 2005;
revised 6 October 2005;
accepted 17 October 2005.
Available online 23 March 2006.
Abuse of several categories of prescription drugs has increased markedly in the United States in the past decade and is now at alarming levels for certain agents, especially opioid analgesics and stimulants. Prescription drugs of abuse fit into the same pharmacological classes as their non-prescription counterparts. Thus, the potential factors associated with abuse or addiction versus safe therapeutic use of these agents relates to the expected variables: dose, route of administration, co-administration with other drugs, context of use, and expectations. Future scientific work on prescription drug abuse will include identification of clinical practices that minimize the risks of addiction, the development of guidelines for early detection and management of addiction, and the development of clinically effective agents that minimize the risks for abuse. With the high rates of prescription drug abuse among teenagers in the United States, a particularly urgent priority is the investigation of best practices for effective prevention and treatment for adolescents, as well as the development of strategies to reduce diversion and abuse of medications intended for medical use.
Keywords: Prescription drug abuse; Drug dependence; Later Addiction.
KEY QUESTION: DO Y.P. MOVE FROM LEGAL PRESCRIBED DRUGS TO ILLEGAL DRUG DEPENDANCE?
|ECSTACY TABS. COMMON SENSE WOULD SAY IT WOULD.|
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